Houtwal.be --> Fruit ABC-encyclopedie --> Nomenclatuur index --> Betekenis wetenschappelijke plantennamen A - M

Betekenis van Latijnse/ wetenschappelijke plantennamen: A - M


abies = spar, den
alba, -um,-us wit
alpina =  afk. uit de Alpen
andreanum = naar E.F. André
annuum = eenjarig
anthos, anthus = bloem (Gr.)
aquifolium = met scherpe bladeren
arguta = scherp gezaagd
armeniaca = uit Armenië, Armenische boom
ascalonicum,-a,-us = van Askalon, in Palestina
atlantica = uit de Atlas
atlantica = van het Atlasgebergte
aucuparia = vogellokkend
aurea (aureum) = goudgeel
aurea, flavum, lutea = geel
australis = uit het zuiden
avellana = van Avella (stad in Italië)

baccatus = besdragend
barbatus = gebaard
betulus = lijkend op berk
botrytis,(bot-rys) Gr.botrys = naam van druif

campestre = uit het veld
carica = van Carië, in Klein-Azië
carota = L. naam van de peen (wortel)
caryophyllus = plant met kruidnagel-geur
cepa = L. naam voor de ajuin
cerasus =  kersenboom
cerefolium GR. chairephyllon =  liefelijk blad; (Fr. cerfeuil)
chinensis, = Chinees; (ook: sinensis)
communis = gewoon, algemeen
corymbosum =  met tuilen, tuildragend

decora = sierlijk
delicious, (deliciosa)=  heerlijk smakend
domestica = huiselijk, inheems
dulcis, dulce = zacht, zoet, liefelijk

edulis (edúlis) = eetbaar
elegans = sierlijk
endiva (intybus) = Waarschijnl. v.h. Arab. hendibeh.
esculenta, -um = eetbaar
europaea = uit Europa
expansa, -us, um = uitgebreid

faba = naam van een boon (Lat.)
floribunda rijkbloeiend
florus = met bloemen als ....
foliosus,-a, -um = bladrijk, bladachtig
folius = met bladeren als ...

gallica = uit Frankrijk
gemmifera gemmatus, -a, -um = met knopjes (knopjesdra-gend)
germanica = uit Duitsland
grandiflorum = grootbloemig
graveolens = sterk riekend

hispanica = Spaans, (uit Spanje)
hybriden, hybridus = bastaarden (kruisingen), hybriden (hibriden)

idaeus,-a, -um = van de berg Ida op Kreta
incana = grijs
insititia = voor het enten gebruikt (onderstam)
intybus (endiva) = Waarschijnl. v.h. Arab. hendibeh.

japonica = uit Japan

laurocerasus = blad lijkt op laurier, vrucht lijkt op kers
lycopersicum = lykos (GR.) = wolf; persica = perzik

macrophylla = grootbladig
majus = groter
maritima = aan de boord van de zee
maritima = aan de zeekust groeiend
mas (masculus) = mannelijk
maximum = de grootste
media = de middelste
melongena GR.: mèlon = appel; genos= geslacht, afkomst
microphylla = kleinbladig
minor = kleiner
mollis = zacht
montana uit de bergen

Tip!
Meer lezen over de betekenis/ verklaring en oorsprong (etymologie) van Latijnse plantennamen:
"ABC van het plantenlatijn. Betekenis van botanische namen".
 

.

Derivation of plantnames & meaning plantnames. Plant Names explained.

Engelstalige betekenis van wetenschappelijke namen & botanische termen:

Plantnames explained A.

a- (an-) = without, lacking (anacanthus = spineless; amorpha = without a definite form; Arachis = without a rachis, the peanut genus /
ab- = prefix meaning 'away from' or 'departing'
abaxial= on the side of a lateral organ away from the axis or stem (cf. adaxial)
aberrant = deparing from the normal or usual
abortive = imperfectly developed; defective; barron
apetalus = without petals / aphyllus = without leaves / apterus = without a wing)
abr- = delicate (Abrophyllum = delicate leaved)
acanth- referring to a thorn, spines (Acanthus) (acanthoides = Acanthus-like / chrysanthicum = golden-spined)
acaul- = stemless (caul = stem) (acaulis)
-ace(...) =  = partaking of (rosaceus / rosaceum = rosy)
acephal- = headless, without a head (ceph = head) (acephalus)
acer- = referring to the genus, Acer, the ancient Latin name of the maple tree (aceroides = Maple-like)
acerb- = harsh, bitter, stinging (acerbifolia)
aceros- = needle-like (acerosus)
acet- = referring to acid (acetophylla = acid + leaf)
acicul- = referring to a needle (acicularis = needle-like)
acin- = referring to a saber (shape) (acinitus / acinaceus)
acri- = acrid, sharp (acris / acrifolia = sharp-leaved)
acro- = referring to the top of an entity, height (Acrocomia = hair at the top, a palm genus with pinnate leaves)
actin- = referring to a ray (Actinidia, the Kiwi Fruit; cut one across and see the rayed arrangement of the carpels (ovaries)) (actinophylla = Rayed leaves)
aculeat- = sting, prickle (aculeatus)
acuminat- = pointed, tapering (acuminatus)
acut- = acute, sharp (acutissima = very pointed / acutangulatus = acute + angle / acutifidus = acutely; cut / acutifolius = sharp + leaf / acutus)
ad- = to, on, onto (adnatum = joined to / adpressus = pressed against)
adeno- = referring to a gland (Adenophora = gland-bearing) (adenophylla = glandular leaf)
adnat- = joined (adnatus)
adven- = adventive (advenuus)
aequi- / equi- = equal (aequinoctialis = equinox, )
aer- = referring to the air (aeranthos = air flower)
aestiv- = referring to summer (aestivus)
aethiopi- = referring to Ethiopia - or Africa in general (aethiopium)
affin- = related (affinis / affine)
agerat- = referring to the genus Ageratum (ageratifolia = Ageratum-like leaves)
aggreg- = clustered, aggregated (aggregatus)
agr- = referring to fields or farms (agrarius / agrestis)
alat- = winged or wing-like (alatus)
alb- = white (albiflorens = white-flowered / albidum / albomaculatum = white-spotted / albicans / albicaulis = white-stemmed)
alli- = referring to the genus Allium which contains the onion, garlic, leeks, etc. (alliacea)
alpestr- = alpine (alpestris)
alpin- = referring to alpine regions (alpinus)
alt- = referring to height (altus / altissimus = very tall)
altai- = Siberian (altaicus)
altern- = alternate (alternifolia)
amabil- = lovely (amabilis)
amar- = bitter (amara)
amethysti- = violet-colored (amethysticus)
amoen- = charming, lovely (amoena)
ampel- = referring to a vine (Ampelopsis = like a vine)
amphi- = both, two (amphibius)
amphor- = referring to an urn, a pitcher (amphoricaulis = stem shaped like a pitcher)
ampl- = ample, large (amplissimus = very large)
amplexi- = clasping (amplexicaulis = clasping the stem)
amplexicaul: stem-clasping
ampul- = referring to a flask (shape) (ampullacea)
amurensis hailing from Siberia
amygdal- = almond-like (amygdalinus)
anatol- = referring to Asia Minor (anatoliensis)
anceps two-edged
andi- = referring to the Andes (andicola / andinus)
andr- = referring to the male part, usually the anthers (androgynus = male + female parts, indicating that both male and female flowers are found on the plant)
anemo- = referring to wind (Anemone = wind flower)
angiosperm: flowering plant, plants with ovules enclosed in ovary (cf. gymnosperm)
angli- = English (anglicum)
angui- = referring to a snake (shape) (anguinus)
angul- = referring to an angle (angularis / angulatus / angulosus)
angust- = narrow (angustus / angustifolia = narrow leaved)
anis- = unequal (Anisacanthus = unequal thorns)
annu- = annual (annuus)
annual: completing the life-cycle within one year (cf. perennial)
annul- = ringed, annular (annularis / annulatus)
anomal- = anomalous, unusual, abnormal (anomalus)
anth- = referring to a male part (the anther), - a flower (Anthurium = flower + tail)
anti- = against (Antiacantha = against the spine - a bromeliad)
antill- = referring to the West Indies, Antilles (antillaris)
antipod- = referring to the Antipodes or the polar regions (antipodus)
antiqu- = ancient (antiquorus / antiquus)
apenn- = referring to the Apennines Mts. (Italy) (apenninus)
apert- = open, uncovered, bare (apertus)
apiculat- = with a point (apiculatus)
appendic- = referring to an appendage (appendiculatus)
applanatum = flattened
applicatus = joined, attached
aqu- = referring to water (habitat) (aquatica / aquatilis / aqueus)
aquil- = eagle-like (aquilegia / aquilinus)
arab- = referring to Arabia (arabicus)
arachn- / aran- = referring to spiders (araneosa / arachnoides = like a spider)
arbor- = referring to trees (arborescens / arboricola / arborea)
arbus- = referring to a tree (arbusculus)
archont- = majestic, noble (Archontophoenix = majestic (date) palm)
arct- = referring to a bear (Arctotis = bear's ear)
arcuat- = referring to a bow (shape) (arcuatus)
arec- = referring to the genus Areca (palms) which, itself comes from a Malaysian word meaning, a cluster of nuts (arecoides = Areca-like)
arena- = referring to sand (arenarius)
areol- = with an aereole, pitted (areolatus)
arg- = referring to silver (argentea / argentatum / argophyllus = silver-leaved / argyraeus)
argut- = sharp, pointed (argutus)
arist- = referring to a beard (hairy, bristly) (aristatus / aristosus)
arma- = armed (armatus)
arom- = referring to odor (aromatica)
arrect- = erect (arrectus)
articul- = jointed, articulate (articulatus)
arund- = referring to a reed (Arundinaria, the giant native reed) (arundinaceus
arven- = referring to cultivation (arvensis)
ascendens ascending
asper- = rough (aspera / asperata / asper / aspericaulis = rough-stemmed / asperrimus = very rough)
aspera: rough to the touch; hence asperites, asperate; rough or harsch (dimin. asperulous)
assimil- = like unto (assimilis)
assurg- = sprawling, clambering (assurgens)
astr- = referring to a star (Astrocaryum, star-nut, referring to the markings on the seeds of this palm genus)
-astr(...) =  = like unto (liliastrum = like a lily)
ater = black
atr- = extreme, dark (atropurpurea = deep purple) (atratus = black / atrorubens = dark red / atrovirens = dark green)
atro-: prefix meaning 'dark'
attenu- = attenuated, drawn-out to a point (attenuatus)
attic- = Greek (atticum)
august- = august, noble, majestic (augusta)
aurant- = referring to the color orange (Citrus aurantifolia, the lime (go figger!); aurantifolia = orange-leaved / auranticus)
aure- = golden (aureus / aurespina = golden-spined)
auri- = referring to an ear (shape) (auritum / auriculatum)
austr- = southern, Australian (australis)
avi- = referring to a bird, birdlike (avium / aviculare)
axill- = referring to axils (axillaris)
azur- = referring to the color blue (azureum)
 

Plantnames explained B.

bacc- = referring to berries (baccata / baccifera = berry-bearing)
balear- referring to the Balearic Islands (balearica)
bambus- = referring to bamboo (bambusoides = like bamboo)
barbadensis native to Barbados
barbar- = foreign (barbarus)
barbat- = bearded (barbatus)
barbi- = referring to beards or barbs (barbigera = bearing barbs)
basil- = royal (basilicum) ALSO basal (basilaris)
bell- = handsome, pretty (bellus / bellatus)
benghalensis native to the State of Bengal in India
betul- = referring to the beech tree genus, Betula, the ancient Latin name of the tree (betuloides = like a beech)
bi- = referring to the number two, twice (bipinnatus = twice- = pinnate / bicarinatus = two- = keeled / bicornis = two- = horned / bicolor = two- = colored / bifidus = two + cut / bifurcatus = two + forked)
- = bi(...) =  = referring to life (Dendrobium = tree + life, because this orchid genus is epiphytic on trees)
bienn- = biennial (biennis)
bifurcat- = twice- = forked (bifurcata)
bland- = mild, pleasant (blanda)
- = blast(...) =  = referring to an embryo (Rhopaloblaste = club- = shaped embryo)
blephar- = referring to an eyelash, therefore, fringed (blepharophylla = fringed leaves)
bombyc- = referring to silk (bombycina)
bon- = good (bonus / bona- = nox = good/beautiful night)
boreal- = northern (borealis)
botry- = referring to a cluster (botryoides = cluster- = like)
brach- = referring to a branch or an arm (brachiatus)
brachy- = short, squat (brachypodum = short foot)
bract- = referring to bracts (bracteata) - = a bract is a leaf- = like OR petal- = like structure beneath the truepetals of some flowers (bracteosum)
brevi- = short (brevis / brevicaulis = short- = stemmed / brevispina = short- = spined / brevipes = short- = footed, stalked / brevirostris = short- = beaked / brevisetus = short- = bristled)
brun- = brown (brunneus)
bry- = referring to moss (bryoides)
bucephalus ox- = headed
bulb- = referring to a bulb (bulbosa / bulbifera = bulb- = bearing)
bullat- = swollen (bullatus)

 

Plantnames explained C.

caes- = referring to the color blue (caesia)
caespi- = tufted, growing in a clump (cespitosus)
caffr- = referring to a region of S. Africa
cal- = beautiful (calophylla = beautiful leaf)
calabri- = referring to S. Italy (calabricus)
calam- = referring to a reed (calamifolia / calamus)
calath- = referring to a basket (Calathea)
calcarat- = referring to spurs (calcaratus)
calcare- = referring to lime (calcareus)
calceol- = referring to slipper (shape) (calceolatus)
callos- = thick, calloused (callosum)
calyc- = referring to a flower's calyx (calycina)
calypt- = referring to a covering (Euphoria = carried well)
cambr- = referring to Wales
campan- = referring to a bell (Campanula) (campanulatum)
campestr- = referring to fields (campestris)
cana referring to the color white or gray (cana)
canal- = referring to lines, grooves (canaliculatus)
canariensis referring to the Canary Islands - = native to
candi- = hoary, white (candicans / candida)
canescens gray (or white) and somewhat hairy
cantabr- = referring to a part of Spain (cantabrius)
capens- = referring to the Cape of Good Hope (or ANY cape region) (capensis / capense)
capill- = referring to a hair, thread (capillarius / capillare / capilliformis = formed like a hair / capillipes+ = hair- = like foot/stalk)
capit- = referring to the head (usually to the flower cluster) (capitatum)
cappadoc- = referring to a part of Eastern Europe and Western Asia (cappadocicum)
capr- = referring to a goat (capricornis = goat's horn / pes- = caprae = foot + goat / caprea)
capreol- = twining, twisting (Bignonia capreolatus)
caput a head (caput- = medusae = Medusa's head)
card- = referring to a heart (Cardiospermum = heart seed)
- = card(...) =  = referring to a heart (Anacardium, the cashew genus, referring to the heart- = shaped fruit)
caric- = referring to a part of Asia Minor (carica / Ficus carica = the common fig)
carin- = referring to a keel (carinata)
carn- = referring to flesh (usually the color) (carnea incarnata / carnosa)
carolin- = referring to the Carolinas (caroliniensis) OR in honor of the name Charles or Carol)
- = carp(...) =  = referring to a fruit (megacarpus = big fruited / macrocarpon = large fruit)
carpath- = referring to the Carpathian Mts. Region of Europe
cartilag- = referring to cartilege (cartilagineum)
cary- = referring to a nut (Caryota, the fishtail palm genus)
cathart- = cathartic (cathartica)
cathay- = referring to China (cathayensis)
caud- = referring to a tail (caudatus)
caul- = referring to a stem (cauliflorus = bearing flowers on the stem / caulescens)
- = caul(...) =  = referring to a stem, trunk (albicaulis = white- = stemmed)
cep- = referring to a head (Cephalanthus = flowers in a head /
- = cep(...) =  = referring to a head (multiceps = many- = headed)
cer- = referring to wax (cerifera = wax- = bearing; the genus Cereus, because of the wax- = candle body shapes of most of the species / cerefolium = wax- = leaved)
cera- = referring to a horn (ceratiformis = in the form of a horn / platyceras = broad/flat horn)
ceras- = referring to a cherry (cherry- = like) (laurocerasus = specific name of the Cherrylaurel, the genus being Prunus (ancient Latin for the plum))
cerc- = referring to a tail (Cercocarpus = tailed fruit, the Mountain Mahogany genus, in the Rose family, whose fruit (hips) DO have little tails)
cernu- = bending, drooping (cernuus)
ceylan- = referring to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
chaen- = open, split (Chaenomeles = split fruit)
chaet- = referring to a hair or bristle (chaetophylla = bristle- = like leaves)
chalcedon- = referring to a part of Asia Minor, including Greece and Turkey
chamae- = dwarf, low (Chamaedorea = dwarf gift, a palm genus, refer- = ring to the fact that most species are of short stature and, therefore, their fruit ((the gift)) is found at relatively low heights)
cheil- = / chil- = referring to a lip or margin (Chilopsis = like a lip, referring to the flaring, trumpet- = shaped flowers) (Cheilanthes = lip + flower)
chen- = referring to a goose (Chenopodium = goose + foot)
- = chi(...) =  = referring to snow (Hedychium = sweet snow referring to the fragrant white flowers of this member of the ginger family)
chinensis = referring to China
chit- = referring to a covering, a cloak (Rhodochiton = rosy covering)
- = chlamy(...) =  = referring to clothes (chlamydea = clothed, covered)
chlor- = referring to the color green (chloranthus = green- = flowered)
chrys- = yellow, golden (Chrysanthemum = golden flower) (chrysocoma = golden hair)
- = cid(...) =  = referring to the act (or art) of killing (Piscidea = fish + kill, the Fish Poison Tree)
cili- = ciliate, hairy (ciliatus)
cinct- = girded, girdled (cinctus)
ciner- = referring to ashes (ash- = colored) (Cineraria refers to the ash- = colored leaves)
cinnabar- = referring to cinnabar, a reddish mineral (cinnabarinus)
circin- = coiled (circinnatus)
cirrh- = referring to a thread, a tendril (Cirrhopetalum, an orchid, = tendril- = like petals)
ciss- = referring to an ivy (Cissus)
citr- = referring to citrus (citrifolia = leaves having a citrus- = like odor / citrinum)
clad- = referring to a branch (Cladanthus = branch + flower)
clav- = referring to a club (clavatus)
cleist- = / cleis- = closed (Cleisostoma = closed mouth, referring to the flower shape / Cleistocactus = closed + cactus)
clin- = inclined (Clinostigma = inclined stigma)
clyt- = beautiful, marvelous (Clytostoma = beautiful mouth, re- = ferring to the flaring, trumpet- = shaped flowers of this genus)
cocc- = referring to a seed or berry (coccifera = bearing berries / Chiococca = snow berry)
coccin- = red (coccineus)
cochl- = referring to a spoon, a spade (Cochlearia, referring to leaf shape) (cochlearis)
cochli- = referring to a spiral (Cochliostema = spiral stamens)
coco- = referring to a monkey (fr. Portuguese) (Cocos nucifera = the coconut palm, whose nut (fruit) with its three eyes looks to some like a monkey's face - = nucifera = nut- = bearing)
-codon referring to a bell (Platycodon = broad bell- = shaped)
caerul- = bluish (cerulea as in Passiflora caerulea, the mostly blue- = flowered Passion Vine / caerulescens / caeruleus)
caes- = referring to the color blue- = gray (caesium)
caespitos- = tufted, clumped (caespitosus)
coel- = hollow (Coelogyne = hollow female part)
coelest- = referring to the sky, blue (coelestina)
collin- = referring to a hill (habitat) (collinus)
columb- = referring to a dove (columbaria)
com- = - = com(...) =  = referring to a hair (Acrocomia = top + hair, referring to the palms viewed from a distance) (comosus)
commun- = common (communis)
commut- = referring to change, changeable (commutatus)
con- = with (having) (concolor)
confert- = crowded (confertifolia = crowded leaves)
coni- = referring to a cone (coniferus)
conjug- = joined together (conjugatus)
conoid- = cone- = like (conoideus)
contort- = twisted, contorted (contortus)
coral- = coral, red (corallinus)
cord- = referring to a heart (cordifolia = heart- = shaped leaf)
core- = referring to an insect (Coreopsis = like a bug)
cori- = referring to leather (coriaceus)
corn- = referring to a horn (tereticornis = cylindrical- = horned / cornuta)
coron- = referring to a crown (coronata coronaria)
cors- = referring to Corsica (corsicus)
cort- = referring to bark (corticosa / excorticata = off + bark, referring to exfoliating bark)
corusc- = referring to vibration, shaking
corymb- = referring to a corymb, a broad, + or - = flat- = topped flower cluster (corymbosus)
coryn- = referring to a club (shape) (corynocalyx = club- = shaped calyx)
coryph- = referring to the top (apex) of an entity (Corypha, a palm genus whose immense members produce flowers only once, in a huge panicle at the very tip of the trunk, and then the tree dies)
corys- = referring to a helmet (Corysanthus)
cost- = referring to ribs (costatus)
cotyl- = referring to a cup (Cotyledon, a genus of succulents whose leaves are, in general, concave)
- cotyl(...) = referring to a cup
crass- = thick (Crassulaceae, a whole family of succulent (thick- = stemmed) plants, which includes the genus Crassula) (crassifolia = thick- = leaved)
cren- = scalloped, crenulate (crenulatum)
crepid- = referring to a sandal (crepidatum)
crepit- = referring to rattles (crepitans)
crepusc- = referring to twilight (crepuscularia)
cret- = referring to chalk or the island of Crete
crinit- = hairy (crinitum)
crisp- = curled, crinkled (crispus)
crist- = referring to a crest (cristata crista- = galli = crest of a cock / cock's comb)
croc- = referring to the crocus (yellow) (crocata / crocea /)
crotal- = referring to rattles (Crotalaria, a papilionaceus genus whose dry seed pods are like castanets)
cruc- = referring to a cross (Cruciferae, a genus of plants, includ- = many veggies, the petals of whose flowers are so evenly distributed as to form a cross)
cruent- = referring to blood (cruenta)
crypt- = hidden, not obvious (cryptanthus = hidden flower)
cucul- = referring to a hood (cucullatus)
cultr- = referring to a knife (shape) (cultratus / cultratus)
cune- = referring to a wedge (shaped) (cuneiformis)
cupr- = referring to copper (color) (cuprea)
cupress- = referring to a cypress (cupressoides- = like)
cuspid- = referring to a cusp or point (cuspidata)
cyan- = referring to the color blue (cyaneus)
cyath- = referring to a cup (cyathiforme = cup- = shaped / cyathiphorum = cup- = bearing)
cycl- = referring to a circle (Cyclanthera = circle of anthers)
cycn- = / cygn- = / cyn- = referring to a swan (cygniformis / Polycynis = many swans, referring to the flowers of this genus of orchids)
cyl- = referring to a cylinder (cylindriata)
cym- = referring to a cyme (a broad, flat- = topped flower cluster) (cymosa)
cymb- = referring to a boat (shape) (cymbiformis)
cyn- = referring to a dog (Cynoglossum = dog's tongue)
cypho- = referring to a hump, a tumor, a wart
cypr- = referring to copper (cypreus) - = or a slipper (Cypr- = ipedium, the Lady- = Slipper genus of orchids)
cyrt- = referring to a curve (Cyrtostachys = a curved spike (of flowers))
cyst- = referring to a cyst or bladder (Cystacanthus = bladder + thorn)

Plantnames explained D.

dactyl- = referring to a finger (Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm, = finger-bearing, referring to shape of the fruit cluster)
daemon- = referring to a spirit, a demon (Daemonorops = demon shrub, a palm with spines)
dasy- = thick (Dasystachys = thick spike (of flowers))
de- = from, out of, off (decorticans = off + skin, therefore, peeling bark)
dealb- = whitish (dealbata)
debil- = weak (debiliformis = weak form)
deca- = referring to the number ten (decapetalus = ten-petalled)
decip- = drooping, deceptive, falling (decipiens)
declin- = declined, drooping (declinatus)
decor- = decorative (decora)
decumb- = reclining, prostrate, decumbent (decumbens)
decur- = literally 'running downwards,' usually meaning that the leaf 'runs down,' i.e., is joined to the stem of the plant (decurrens)
deflex- = bent downwards (deflexus)
delph- = referring to the dolphin (Delphinium, whose flowers supposedly resemble dolphins)
delect- = chosen, desirable, tasty (delectus)
deltoid- = triangular (deltoidea)
dendr- = referring to a tree (Dendrocalamus = tree + reed, the great giant tropical bamboo genus)
dent- = referring to a tooth (dentata)
denud- = naked (denudatus)
depend- = hanging (dependens)
-derm(...) = referring to skin, theredore bark (leucodermis = white- bark)
desm- = referring to a bond, or band (Desmoncus = band + hook, referring to the barbed leaves of this genus)
di- = referring to the number two (diacanthus = two-spined / dioica = two houses, indicating that the flowers are of separate sexes and found on different plants) (dipterocarpus = two + wing + fruit)
dichot- = two-branched (dichotomus)
dicty- = referring to a net (Dictyogramma = net-like + lines)
didy- = double, twinned (Didymocarpus = twin fruit) (didyma)
digit- = referring to fingers (Digitalis, the shape of the flowers supposedly resembling the finger of a glove) (digitata)
dilat- = spread out, expanded (dilatatus)
dios- = referring to a god or divinity (Diospyros = god + fruit, the persimmon)
dipl- = double (Diplothemium = double-sheathed)
dis- = referring to the number two or to a difference (discolor = (two-colored)
distich- = referring to two ranks (as in the arrangement of leaves); (distichum)
diurn- = referring to daytime (diurnum)
divari- = divergent, spreading (divaricatus)
divergens- = divergent, wide-spreading
divers- = variable (diversiflora = variable-flowered)
divi- = divided (divisus)
dodec- = twelve (dodecanthus = twelve-spined)
domestic- = domestic, cultivated (domestica)
-dont(...) = referring to a tooth (macrodonta = large-toothed)
-dor(...) = referring to a gift (Haemodorum = blood gift)
dory- = referring to a spear, lance (Doryanthes = lance-flower)
drac- = referring to a dragon (Dracaena draco = the dragon tree of the Canary Islands)
dros- = referring to dew (Drosera, the sundew genus)
drup- = referring to a berry-like fruit (drupifera = fruit -bearing / drupacea)
dry- = referring to an oak, wooden (Dryopteris, the wood-fern genus)
dub- = doubtful, dubious (dubius)
dulc- = sweet, tender (dulcis)
dumos- = bushy (dumosus)
dupl- = double (duplicatus)
dur- = durable hard, woody (durabilis)

Plantnames explained E.

e- = without, (emarginatus = without a margin) ALSO out of, out from (erumpens = breaking out of)
eben- = referring to ivory (ebenaceus)
echin- = referring to a bristle, prickle, spine (hedgehog) (Echino- cereus, a cactus genus)
edul- = edible (edulis)
elae- = referring to the olive (elaeiformis = shpaed like an olive)
elat- = tall (elata)
eleg- = referring to elegance (elegantissima)
elepha- = referring to an elephant (Phytelephas = Elephant Plant, a palm genus noted for the hard, white endosperm of the seeds, which can be worked like ivory)
ens- = referring to a sword (ensiformis = formed like a sword / ensifolia = sword + leaf / ensata)
-ense = native to (canariense = native to the Canary Islands)
-ensis = native to (canadensis)
entom- = referring to insects (entomophilus = insect-loving)
epi- = upon (Epigaea = on the ground)
equ- = referring to horses (equinus)
aequator- = referring to equatorial regions (aequatorialis)
equin- / equis- = referring to horses (Equisetum, the horsetail genus) (equisetifolia)
erem- = solitary, deserted (therefore usually refers to a desert) (Eremurus = desert + tail)
eri- / erio- = referring to wool (eriospatha = hairy spathe / eriocarpa = wooly fruit)
erica- = referring to the genus Erica, the Heath (ericoides)
erina- = referring to spines, a hedgehog (Erinacea)
eros- = jagged (erosus)
erubescens = retiring, blushing - usually referring to color - literally, emitting rose-color
erythr- = red (Erythrina, the tropical coral-tree)
escul- = edible (esculentum)
eu- = well, good, normal, complete (Eucalyptus, well and calypt (kalypt, calypt = covered, referring to the seed capsules) (eumorpha = well-formed)
ex- = out of, from (Exorrhiza = from the root)
exalt- = very high, tall, lofty (exaltata)
excel- = exalted, lofty, high, tall (excelsus / excelsior)
exci- = cut (excisus)
exigu- = small, lowly (exiguus)
exim- = distinguished (eximia)


 

Plantnames explained F.


faba- = referring to a bean (fabaceus)
falc- = referring to a sickle (shaped) (falcatus)
farin- = referring to starch or wheat (farinacea / farinosa)
fasciat- = flat (fasciatus)
fascicul- = clustered (fasciculatus)
febri- = referring to fever (febrifugus = fever + flight, driving away fever)
fenestr- = referring to a window (fenestralis)
-fer(...) = bearing, producing (coccifera = bearing berries; resiniferous; nucifera = nut-bearing; indigofera = indigo-bearing)
fero- = ferocious (Ferocactus = ferociously-spined cactus) (ferox is the Lat. adjective)
ferr- = referring to iron, rusty (color) (ferruginea)
fert- = referring to fruit, fruitful (fertilis)
festuc- = referring to the genus Festuca, a grass, therefore grass- like (festucoides)
fic- = referring to the genus Ficus (ficifolia = figleaf) (ficus-indica = fig of India) (ficaria / ficoides = like a fig)
-fid(...) = parted, divided (multifida = many-parted; bipinnatifida = twice/doubly-pinnately cut/divided)
fili- = referring to a thread (filifera = thread-bearing / filipes = hair + stalk/foot/ filipendulum = thread + drooping)
filic- = referring to ferns (filicifolia = fern-like leaves); the noun is filix = fern (filix-femina = fern +
woman, the lady-fern)
fimbr- = referring to a fringe (fimbriatus)
fissi- = split (fissifolia)
fistul- = hollow tubelike (fistularis / fistulosa)
flabell- = fan-like (flabelliformis = formed like a fan)
flaccid- = soft (flaccida)
flagell- = referring to a whip (flagelliforma)
flamm- = referring to a flame (color) (flammeus)
flav- = referring to yellow (flavescens / flavum / flavida)
flex- = pliable, crooked, bent (flexuosus = bent)
floc- = referring to wool (floccosus)
flor- = a flower (floribunda = abundantly-flowering)
flui- = floating (fluidans)
fluv- = referring to a river (fluvialis)
foetid- fetid- = stinking (foetida)
foli- = referring to leaves (foliosa)
-foli(...) = referring to leaves (latifolia = flat-leaved)
foll- = referring to follicles (follicularis)
-form(...) = in the form of .... (fusiforma = spindle-shaped)
formos- = beautiful (formosa / formosissima = most beautiful) NB: formosana usually refers to Formosa (Taiwan))
formosan- = referring to Formosa (Taiwan) (formosanum)
-frag(...) = referring to a break or rupture (rupifragum = rock- breaker)
frax- = referring to the ash tree (fraxifolia = ash-foliaged / fraxinifolia)
frond- = referring to a leaf (frondosa)
-frons = referring to a leaf (frond) (simplicifrons)
frigid- = referring to cold regions (frigida)
fruct- = referring to fruit (esp. the grape) (fructifera = fruit- bearing)
frut- = referring to a shrub (shrubby) (fruticosa / fruticans = shrubby)
fuc- = painted (fucatus) - ALSO referring to a red alga plant in shape (fucoidea)
fulg- = shining, excessive (fulgens)
fulgin- = black, dark in color (fulginosa)
fulv- = referring to the color yellow (orange) (fulvescens, fulvida / fulvus)
furc- = forked. cleft (furcatus)
fusc- = brown, reddish-brown (fuscus)
fusi- = referring to a spindle (fusiformis)

Plantnames explained G.


-gae(...) =  referring to the earth, ground (hypogaea = underground)
-gal(...) = referring to milk (Polygala = many milks, referring to a myth that the plants increase the flow of mother's milk)
gall- = referring to Gaul (France), Gallic (gallicus) ALSO referring to a cock (rooster) (crus-galli =
cock-spur)
gam- = united (married) (gamopetala = joined petals) (polygama = many married, meaning, in a botanical sense, that the flowers are of both sexes on a single plant)
gast- = referring to a stomach, a belly, swollen (Gasteria, a a genus of succulents, the appearance pf which is somewhat a swollen stem)
gemin- = referring to twins (geminiflora)
gemm- = referring to jewels or buds (gemmiflorus)
geo- = referring to the earth, the ground (geoides)
-ger(...) = bearing (cornigera = with a horn)
gibb- = swollen on one side (the gibbous moon) (gibbosa)
gig- = referring to giants or immensity (gigantea)
glabr- = smooth (glabrescens)
glad- = referring to a sword (Gladiolus, because of the leaves)
gland- = referring to a gland (glandulifera = gland-bearing)
glauc- = milky, with a bloom, greyish (glaucescens / glaucinus)
glob- = referring to a ball or sphere (globulus)
glom- = referring to a cluster (glomerata)
glor- = glorious (gloriosa)
gloss- = referring to a tongue (shape) (Ophioglossum = snake's tongue - a fern)
glut- = referring to glue (glutinosa)
glyc- = sweet (in taste) (Glycyrrhiza, the licorice plant, = sweet root)
-gon(...) = referring to an angle (Polygonum = many-angled/jointed) (chrysogonum = golden angle (star))
goni- = referring to an angle (Goniopterus = angle-winged)
gongyl- = rounded, swollen (gongyloides)
gossyp- = referring to the genus Gossypium, the cotton plant (gossypifolium = cotton plant + leaf)
gracil- = graceful, slender (gracilis / gracilipes = slender + foot / stalk)
graec- = pertaining to Greece (Greek) (graeca)
gramin- = referring to grass (graminifolia = grass-like leaves)
gramm- = referring to a line / written upon (Grammatophyllum = written-on (lined) leaves)
grand- = large (grandiceps = large-headed)
granul- = granular, grainy (granulosus)
-graph(...) = referring to writing (xerographica = dried writing)
grat- = wonderful, pleasing, likeable (gratus gratissima)
graveol- = heavy (often referring to odor) (graveolens)
gris- = referring to the color gray (griseus)
gumm- = referring to gum (gummifera = gum-bearing)
gutt- = referring to a spot or a drop (the genus Guttifera whose leaves exude water)) (guttatus = spotted)
gymn- = naked, bare (gymnocladus = bare-branched)
gyn- = referring to the female sex (Gynura tailed woman - just wanted to see if you were awake! -- a stigma with a tail) (monogyna = single female sexual part, a single pistil)
gyr- = revolving, gyrating (gyrans)

 

Plantnames explained H.

haema- = referring to blood (Haemanthus = blood flower) (haematodes)
hal- = referring to salt (halodendron = salt + tree)
ham- = referring to a hook (hamosus)
haplo- = referring to the number one (haplophylla = one-leaved)
harp- = referring to a sickle (shape) (harpophyllus = sickle-shaped leaf)
hast- = referring to a spear (hastatum)
hebe- = pubescent (hebecarpus = hairy-fruited)
hedy- = sweet, fragrant (Hedycarya = sweet nut)
heli- = referring to the sun (Helianthus = sun flower)
helic- = referring to a spiral, a coil (helicoides)
helvetic- = referring to Switzerland (helvetica)
hemero- = referring to a day (Hemerocallis = beautiful for a day)
hemi- = half (hemisphaericus = half a sphere)
hepat- = referring to the liver (shape) (hepaticus)
hepta- = referring to the number seven (heptaphyllum = seven- leaved)
herb- = not woody (herbaceous) (herbacea)
hesper- = referring to the evening or the west (Hesperaloe = Western Aloe)
heter- = variable, different, not-alike (Heteranthera = having unlike anthers in the flowers)
hexa- = referring to the number six (hexagonus = six-angled)
hibern- = referring to winter (hibernalis) OR Ireland (hibernicus)
hipp- = referring to a horse (Hippocrepis = horse-shoe)
hirss- / hirt- = referring to hair (hirtellus = somewhat hairy) / (hirsutum)
hispid- = referring to bristles (hispidula)
hort- = referring to a garden (cultivated) (hortensis / hortulanum)
humil- = low, dwarf (humilis / humile)
hyal- = transparent, translucent (hyalina)
hyem- / hiem- = referring to winter (hyemalis)
hydr- = referring to water (Hydrocotyle = water cup)
hyl- = referring to wood (Hylocereus, a climbing, night- blooming cactus with eventual woody stems)
hymen- = referring to a membrane (Hymenocallis = beautiful membrane, referring to the membrane which connects the base of the anthers in this genus of the spider lily)
hyo- = referring to a hog/swine (Hyophorbe = swine food)
hyper- = above, far, extreme (hyperborealis = of the far north)
hypo- = under, beneath (hypophyllus = under the leaf / hypoleuca = white beneath)
hystr- = bristly (hystrix)

Plantnames explained I.


iber- = referring to Spain (Iberis)
-ifoli(...) = this part is used very much in combination with parts of generic names (as a prefix) to mean leaves like [x] where [x] is the generic word-part prefix (aconitifolium = leaves like Aconitum) (ulmifolia = leaves like Ulmus, the elm)
ign- = referring to fire (color) (igneus)
ilic- = referring to the holly tree (plant) (illicifolia = holly-leaved)
illic- = referring to fragrance/seduction (Illicium)
illustr- = bright, notable (illustris)
illyr- = referring to Greece (illyrica)
imbricat- = shingled, overlapping (imbricatus)
immacul- = spotless, immaculate (immaculata)
imper- = regal, imperious (imperator / imperialis)
impres- = sunken (impressum)
in- = un..., not .... without (inermis = unarmed / inapertum = not + open, therefore closed)
inaequal- = unequal (inaequalifolius = unequal leaves)
incan- = hairy, hoary (incana)
incarn- = referring to flesh (colored) (incarnatus)
incis- = cut (incisus)
incurv- = bent inward (incurvatus)
indent- = indented (indentata)
ind- = Indian (the subcontinent) (indica)
-ind(...) = referring to India (Morinda = mulberry + India)
indivis- = undivided (indivisus)
inerm- = unarmed (inermis)
infector- = referring to dyes and the process of dyeing (infectoria)
infest- = unsafe (infesta)
inflat- = swollen (inflatus)
ingens = massive, tremendous (size)
insign- = remarkable, distinguished (insignis / insigne)
integ- = entire (integrifolia = entire (margin)-leaved / integerrimus = very complete, entire)
intors- = turned inwards (intorsus)
involucr- = referring to an involucre (involucrata)
ion- = referring to a violet or the color (Ionopsis = violet-like - an orchid)
irid- = referring to the genus Iris, Gr. for rainbow (iridiflorus = iris-flowered)
isa- / iso- = equal, like (Isochilus = equal lips - an orchid) (isophylla = equal (sized) leaves)
-issim(...) = most, very (viridissima = very green / altissima = VERY tall)
ital- = referring to Italy (italica)
.
 

Plantnames explained J.

japon- = referring to Japan (japonica)
java- = referring to Java (javanicus)
juba- = crested (jubatus)
junc- = referring to a reed, Juncus (juncifolia = Juncus-leaved)

Plantnames explained K.

kalmiiflorus = with flowers like Kalmia (kalmiiflorus)
kamtschaticus = from Kamchatka (Sedum kamtschaticum)

Plantnames explained L.

labi- = referring to a lip (labiata)
lachry- = referring to a tear (like in drop) (lachrymosa)
lacin- = torn, cut, incised (laciniatus)
lact- = referring to milk (lactiflorus = milk-colored flowers)
lacun- = referring to a hole or pit (lacunosa)
lacustr- = referring to a lake (lacustris)
laet- = bright (laetum)
laevi- = smooth (laevigatus / laevis /laeve)
lagen- = referring to a bottle (Lagenaria, a gourd genus)
lan- = referring to wool (lanata, lanosus)
lanc- = referring to a lance (lanceolatus)
lanig- = referring to wool (lanigerus = wool-bearing)
lanug- = referring to wool or down (lanuginosus)
larici- = referring to the genus Larix, the Larch tree (laricifolia = leaves like a larch)
lasi- = rough, hairy (lasiocarpus = rough fruit)
later- = lateral, referring to a side (lateriflora = flowers on the side)
laterit- = referring to a brick (color) (lateritium)
lati- = broad, wide - horizontally (latifolia = wide-leaved)
lauri- = referring to the Laurel tree (laurifolius = leaves like the laurel)
lavand- = referring to the genus Lavandula, the Lavender plant which name, itself, comes from the Latin word to wash, the plant having been used since ancient times in the bath water (lavandulacea)
lax- = loose, open (laxifolia = loosely/sparsely-leaved) (laxa)
leia- / leio- = smooth (leiocarpus = smooth fruit)
lenti- = referring to a lens (lentiformis = in the form of a lens)
leon- = referring to a lion (Leontopodium, the Edelweiss, = lion's foot)
lep- = referring to scales (Lepidium = little scale)
-lep(...) = referring to a scale (Microlepia = small scale - a fern)
lepr- = scurfy (leprosepala = scurfy petalled)
lept- = thin, slender (Leptocodon = slender bell)
leuc- = referring to the color white (Leucadendron = silver tree) (leuconeura = white-nerved)
lign- = referring to wood (lignosa)
ligul- = referring to a strap (shape)
limn- / lim- = referring to mud or marshes (Limodorum = marsh gift)
line- = linear (linearis) ALSO meaning lined (lineatus)
ling- = referring to a tongue (lingua / lingularia)
liri- = referring to a lily (Liriodendron = lily + tree)
-liri(...) = referring to a lily (Dasylirion, thick lily)
litho- = referring to a stone (Lithospermum = stone seed)
littor- = referring to a shore (sea) (littoralis)
lob- = referring to lobes - as a suffix it usually refers to a fruit
loma- = referring to a margin (Lomatophyllum = margined leaf)
lonch- = referring to a lance (Lonchocarpus = lance-fruit)
longi- = long (longipes = long foot)
loph- = referring to a crest (Lophophora (the Peyote) = crest-bearing)
lor- = referring to a strap (Loranthus = strap-flower)
lori- = referring to a strap (lorifolius = strap-leaved)
lucid- = referring to light; bright, clear, lustrous (lucida)
ludovic- = referring to King Louis [x], therefore, by extension, to the State of Louisiana (ludoviciana)
luna- = referring to the moon (usually in crescent shape) (Lunaria, referring to the moon-shaped seed pods / lunatus = crescent-shaped)
lurid- = pale, sallow (luridus)
lusitan- = referring to Portugal (lusitanica)
lute- = referring to the color yellow (esp. light yellow) (lutescens / lutea)
lyc- = referring to a wolf (Lycopersicum ((Lycopersicon)) = wolf-peach - the tomato; the derivation is probably due to the fact that the fruit was once considered poisonous)
lyr- = referring to a lyre (shape) (lyrata)

Verklarend woordenboek van wetenschappelijke planten namen: "ABC van het plantenlatijn. Betekenis van botanische namen"

Plantnames explained M.

macr- = large (macranthus = large-flowered)
macul- = referring to a spot (maculatus)
magellan- = referring to the area of the Straits of Maggellan (magellanica)
magn- = big, magnificent (magnificus / magnimama = big mama, actually mammary glands, the protuberances on a species of Mammillaria)
maj- = major, larger (major / majus)
majal- = referring to the month of May (flowering) (majalis)
malabar- = referring to an area of India (malabaricum)
malac- = soft (Malacocarpus = soft-fruited) (malacodendron = soft + tree)
malv- = referring to the genus Malva, the Mallow (malvacea)
mamm- = referring to breasts or nipples (mammifera = breast- bearing breasts or nipples)(Mammillaria, a great genus of cactus, because all the bodies of the plants bear many nipple-like protuberances)
manic- = referring to a covering of dense hairs, a sleeve (manicata)
margin- = referring to a margin (marginalis)
mariland- = referring to Maryland (marilandica)
marin- = referring to the sea marinum)
marit- = referring to the seashore (maritima)
marm- = marbled, marbled (marmoratus / marmoreum)
mas = male - usually referring to robustness of the plant, rather than sex of the flowers -- sexist!
maurit- = referring to North Africa (mauritania)
maxim- = largest (maxima)
maxil- = referring to a jaw (maxillaris
medul- = referring to marrow, the center, the pith (medullaris)
mega- = large (megacarpa = large-fruited / megalanthus = large-flowered)
mela- = black (Melaleuca = black (trunk) + white (branches))
mel- / mell- = referring to honey (melliodora = honey-scented) (Melianthus = honey flower)
meles = referring to an apple, or any fruit (Chaenomeles = split + fruit)
melo- = referring to a melon (meloformis = melon shaped)
men- = referring to a month and, by extension, the moon (Menispermum = moon seed)
menisc- = referring to a crescent (meniscifolius = crescent- shaped foliage)
-mer(...) = referring to parts (trimera = three parts)
merid- = referring to noon (meridionalis = mid-day bloomer)
mes- = mixed, middle (Mesembryanthemum = mid-day flower)
metr- = referring to the center (heart) of an entity (Metroxylon = heartwood)
mica- = referring to mica, glittering (micans)
mic- = referring to mica or glitter (micans)
mille- = referring to the number 1000 or a very large number (millefolius = very many leaves)
mim- = referring to a mime (Mimosa, because of the closing up of the leaflets in many species - also Mimulus, because the flowers are supposedly similar to grinning faces - by extension, a monkey or an ape: Mimusops = like a monkey)
minax = forbidding, threatening (like thorns)
miniat- = of a reddish color (miniata)
minim- = very small (minimus)
minor / minus smaller
minut- = very small (minutus)
mirab- = wonderful (Mirabilis, the Four-O'Clock genus)
misc- = referring to a stem (Miscanthus = stem flower)
mitis = mild, gentle, unarmed
mitr- = referring to a turban, mitre (mitrocarpus = mitre-shaped fruit)
modest- = modest, unaffected, usually means unadorned (modesta)
moldav- = referring to Rumania (moldavicus)
moll- = soft (hairy) (mollis / mollissima / molle)
molucc- = referring to the East Indies
mon- = referring to the number one (Monanthes = single-flowered) (monophylla = one leaf)
monil- = referring to necklace (monilifera = necklace-bearing)
monst- = monstrous, abnormal (Monstera, because of the unusual, cut leaves)
mont- = referring to a mountain (montanus)
monti- = referring to mts. (monticolus)
mor- = referring to the genus Morus, the mulberry
-mord(...) = to bite (Momordica, referring to the appearance of the seeds)
-morph(...) =  referring to form (polymorpha = many forms / callimorphum = beautifully-formed)
mosch- = referring to musk (odor) (Moschosma = musk-like odor / moschata)
mucron- = referring to a point (usually in shape of leaf) (mucronatus)
multi- = many (multiflora = many-flowered / multicaulis = many-trunked)
munit- = referring to defense (with thorns, prickles, etc.) (munitus)
mura- = referring to a wall (muralis)
muric- = rough, knobby (muricata)
mus- / myos- = referring to a mouse (Myosotis = mouse ear - the Forget -Me-Not genus, in reference to the mousy leaves
musc- = referring to musk (Muscari, because of the musky odor of the flowers of M. moschatum)ALSO referring to a fly (muscivorus = fly-eating)
mutab- = referring to change, variability (mutabilis)
mutic- = blunt (mutica)
myr- = referring to myrrh (Myristica, the nutmeg genus, because of the odor)
myri- = numberless, too many to count, myriad (Myriocephalus = with a myriad of heads)
myrmec- = referring to ants (myrmecophilus = beloved of ants)
myrt- = referring to the myrtle genus, Myrtus (Myrtillocactus = myrtle-berried cactus) myrtifolia = myrtle-leaved)

.

Naar betekenis N - Z. (To plant names explained N-Z)

Terug naar hoofdpagina nomenclatuur

Bronnen betekenis plantennamen - Sources "plant names explained/ meaning plantnames":

Botanisches Wörterbuch - Saftenberg. (1939)
Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen - Zander (1979)
Plantenterminologie - Jac. De Bruijn. (1973, 1981)
Plant Names Explained. Botanical Terms and their Meaning - Hillier. (2006)

Verklarend plantenwoordenboek: ABC van het plantenlatijn. Betekenis van botanische plantennamen. Een boek bestellen kan bij de online boekhandel "shopmybooks".
Plantenamen nader verklaard - Wim Oudshoorn (Kosmos Uitgevers, 2009)